Gemstones Found in Sri Lanka. Information on 10 Amazing Gems

Gemstones Found in Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka the Pearl of the Indian Ocean well known for the gorgeous gemstones found. “The Sapphire
Capital of the World” Is the name honored by Gemologists and Gem Lovers all over the world as a
tribute to the pretty gemstones found in Sri Lanka. Most of the Gemstones are found as secondary
deposits in Sri Lanka, which means those gemstones are formed in a different location and traveled to Sri
Lankan Lands over the Long Period. (This usually takes Millions of Years)

Gemstones Groups and Species Found in Sri Lanka

  • Corundum
  • Chrysoberyl
  • Beryl
  • Garnet
  • Spine
  • Topaz
  • Tourmaline
  • Zircon
  • Quartz
  • Feldspar


The Corundum family can be mainly divided into 2 Varieties. The Chemical Composition of Corundum is
Al2O3 (Aluminum Oxide). For Corundum Species, the color of the stone appears due to transition
chemical impurities like Iron, chromium, Titanium, etc.

Hardness                        –  9

Crystal System              – Trigonal Crystal System

Chemical Composition – Al2O3 (Aluminum Oxide)


The Corundums are mainly 2 types of

  • Ruby
  • Sapphire

Sri Lankan Hot Pink Rubies have more demand in International Gem Market due to their wonderful
beauty. Ruby can be divided into 2 types.

  1. Ruby
  2. Star Ruby

Sri Lanka is named The Capital of Sapphire due to Ceylon Sapphire’s quality and astonishing beauty.
Sapphires can be divided into 10 types by their colors.

  1. White Sapphire
  2. Blue Sapphire
  3. Star Sapphire
  4. Pink Sapphire (Padmaraga Sapphire)
  5. Padparadscha Sapphire (Padmaraja Sapphire)
  6. Yellow Sapphire (Pushparaga Sapphire)
  7. Orange Sapphire
  8. Green Sapphire
  9. Bi-Colour or Mauve Sapphire
  10. Color Changing Sapphire

Sapphires are Mined in many locations in Sri Lanka for example Rathnapura, Elahara, Bakamuna,
Okkampitiya, Nivithigala, Palmadulla, Kahawatte, etc.


Chrysoberyl Species are commonly found in Sri Lanka except for Alexandrite and Cat’s Eye. Alexandrite
is the Gemstone that changes color when exposed to sunlight (Yellow Light). Cat’s Eye gemstones are
gemstones with a chatoyancy effect. Cat’s eye gemstones are cut & polished to cabochons to perfectly
exhibit the chatoyancy effect. Chrysoberyl can be divided into 3 types.

  1. Chrysoberyl
  2. Cat’s Eye
  3. Alexandrite

Hardness                       – 8.5

Crystal System              – Orthorhombic Crystal System

Chemical Composition – BeAl2O4

Chrysoberyl is mined in Rakwana, Deniyaya, Morawaka, Awissawella, Elahara, Horana, Mathugama,
Aluthgama Etc.


Beryl Species consist of many varieties like emeralds, Aquamarine, Beryl, Red beryl (Bixbite), Blue beryl,
etc. Emeralds are precious gemstones and red beryl and blue beryl are rare gemstones, but only
aquamarine and beryls are found in Sri Lanka.

Hardness                        – 7.5-8

Crystal System              – Hexagonal Crystal System

Chemical Composition – Be3Al2SiO6

Only 2 varieties are found in Sri Lanka. Those are.

  1. Beryl
  2. Aquamarine

Beryls and Aquamarines are mine in Morawaka, Rakwana, Hatton, Nawalapitiya and Galle Etc.


Garnet is a gemstone group that is commonly mined all over Sri Lanka. We cannot derive a chemical
composition for the garnet group due to the chemical composition changes for every variety.

Hardness                       – 6.5-7.5

Crystal System              – Cubic Crystal System

Chemical Composition – Cannot Derive due to a Group

There are few Garnet Varieties found In Sri Lanka. They are,

  1. Pyrope Garnet
  2. Hessonite Garnet
  3. Rhodolite Garnet
  4. Almandine Garnet
  5. Spessartine Garnet
  6. Grossular Garnet

Garnets are mined in Rathnapura, Elahara, Mathugama, Galle, Biyagama, Palmadulla, Matara Etc.


Spinel is found in many vibrant color ranges. Which is the best substitute for sapphires? Most jewelers
use Spinel gemstones to reduce the cost of jewelry by replacing it with spinel. Spinel gemstones are
ample in Ceylon. Spinals can be found in blue, Red, Pink, Green, Purple Etc. Spinel is found in every location where sapphires are found.

Hardness                       – 8

Crystal System              – Cubic Crystal System

Chemical Composition – MgAl2O4


Topazes can be found in Colourless, Yellow, Brown, Blue, Red, and Orange colors. Topazes are more
affordable than other gem varieties. Most of the topazes are treated (Irradiation) to get the best colors
and brilliance. Topazes are also found all over Ceylon.

Hardness                       – 8

Crystal System              – Orthorhombic Crystal System

Chemical Composition – Al2SiO4(F,OH)2



Tourmaline is a gemstone that has a wide range of color varieties. Tourmalines are segregated according
to their hues (Colours).

Hardness          – 7-7.5

Crystal System – Trigonal Crystal System


Zircon is found as the World’s oldest gemstone. Researchers have found Zircons formed 4.4 billion
years ago. One of the best substitutes for diamonds due to its adamantine luster & fire effect. Mined in
Colorless transparent to Colour Opaque. In Sri Lanka, most Zircon gemstones are found in Matara. Due
to the presence of Uranium, the Zircons is radioactive. According to the Uranium, Percentage of Zircons are
2 types.

  1. High Zircon
  2. Low Zircon


Hardness                      – 7.5

Crystal System              – Tetragonal Crystal System

Chemical Composition – ZrSiO4



Abundant, Affordable, and beautiful gemstone series which segregates by the colors mined. Quartz can
be seen as Single Crystal and Poly Crystal Forms.

Hardness                       – 7

Crystal System              – Trigonal Crystal System

Chemical Composition – SiO2

  1. Amethyst
  2. Citrine
  3. Rose Quartz
  4. Ametrine
  5. Agate


The Feldspar group consists of moonstone, Sunstone, Amazonite, and Labradorite. In Sri Lanka, only
moonstones are found. Moonstones are found as a Primary deposit in Sri Lanka. Learn More About
Moonstones Found in Sri Lanka by clicking Here.

Hardness                       – 6-6.5

Crystal System              – Monoclinic / Triclinic Crystal System

Chemical Composition – KAlSi3O8 | NaAlSi3O8 | CaAl2Si2O8



Sri Lanka is one of the Gem paradises in the world with a high availability of gems in the world and it is an International sourcing point for over 75 Varieties of Gemstones. It is said only 20% of the minerals & gems are mined in Sri Lanka, which means the other 80% of the gems & minerals are to be mined in the future. Sri Lankan gemstones are mined in superb quality with fewer fractures and Inclusions since Sri Lankan gemstones have a huge demand all over the World. We have summarized only the details of the main gemstones Groups, Species, and Varieties found in Sri Lanka.

Gemstones Groups and Species Found in Sri Lanka

  • Corundum
  • Chrysoberyl
  • Beryl
  • Garnet
  • Spinel
  • Topaz
  • Tourmaline
  • Zircon
  • Quartz
  • Feldspar


  1. Gem and Jewellery Research and Training Institute.
  2. Export Development Board Of Sri Lanka.
  3. National Gem and Jewellery Authority.

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